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Increasingly philosophers (and linguists) are turning their attention to the surprisingly little explored lexical category of slurs. These are expressions that target groups on the basis of race, nationality, religion, gender, sexual orientation, immigrant status and sundry other demographics. In academic discussion, it’s easy to convince oneself (we confess on occasions we have) that particular uses of slurs are inoffensive. This discussion wouldn’t exist otherwise.

Social segregation has become one of the prominent topics in contemporary urban economics research in Russia due to the growing awareness of its potential negative impact on the urban population. Data on urban segregation are used to identify problems in the urban environment. Spatial segregation data reflects the allocation of urban citizens in the city space and the differences in levels of population density across various districts of the city [1].

Even a cursory glance at the titles and opening lines of number of poems in Rita Dove’s collection entitled Museum will alert the reader to her preoccupation with the premises of speech and language (The Hill Has Something to Say: “but isn’t talking”; Catherine of Alexandria: “Deprived of learning and/ the chance to travel,/ no wonder sainthood/ came as a voice”; Catherine of Siena: “You walked the length of Italy/ to find someone to talk to.“; Shakespeare Say: “He drum the piano wood, crowing”; Anti-Fathe

In this article, idioms are viewed as a type of set expressions that carry covert meanings and mark them by creating evident contextual inconsistencies when understood literary. We will argue that such parameters as stability of the form (often described as syntactic ‘frozenness’), non-compositionality and loss of meaning among idiom constituents cannot be taken as distinctive characteristics in idiom definition as these criteria may not be applied to specific idiom usages, referred to as ‘idiom transformations’ in this article.

In the study of Russian civil society before the Revolution, what a researcher discovers depends on whose viewpoint is accepted as most authoritative. For example, the judicial reforms implemented in the 1860s and the tsarist-era Dumas are historical facts, but their civic legacy has been evaluated in fundamentally different ways. If you look through the eyes of eloquent lawyers active in the courts, zemstvos, and the parliament, you see an incredible burst of energy for the public good and a passionate search for truth and justice during trials and at public meetings.

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